A transient in redback is implemented as a redback.transient object. This class implements the required functionality for fitting and all other analysis. It also provides a homogenous way to plot the data, or do any processing such as converting integrated flux to luminosity.

General transient object

There are two parent classes

  • Transient: For any type of generic transient

  • OpticalTransient: For any type of generic optical transient

Specific transient object

These parent classes are inherited by some transient specific classes, which provide additional functionality.

  • Afterglow: afterglow of a gamma-ray burst

    • SGRB/LGRB: short and long gamma-ray bursts

  • Kilonova: For kilonovae

  • Prompt: For prompt gamma-ray bursts

  • Supernova: For supernovae of different varieties

  • TDE: For tidal disruption events

These classes come with additional functionality and lookup tables which provide metadata useful for further analysis, such as redshift, T90, start time, etc. They also allow other processing such as converting flux to luminosity.

We provide two methods for converting integrated flux to luminosity, a simple analytical method, and a more involved method using sherpa.

For each of the transients we have different data_modes which determines what data to fit, plot labels, type of likelihood to use etc. We note that the latter two can be changed by users if desired.

Data modes

The data modes available for each transient are

  • Afterglow: luminosity, flux, flux_density, magnitude

  • Kilonova: flux_density, magnitude, flux

  • Prompt: counts, time tagged events

  • Supernova: flux_density, magnitude, luminosity, flux

  • TDE: flux_density, magnitude, luminosity, flux

Loading catalog data

In redback, we provide several class methods for loading data and creating a transient object. For example loading and creating a transient object for data from the open access catalog is as simple as,

kne = 'at2017gfo'
kilonova = redback.Kilonova.from_open_access_catalogue(name=kne,
            data_mode="flux_density", active_bands=np.array(["g", "i"]))

This loads the data from at2017gfo that was previously downloaded and creates a kilonova object, with the flux_density data mode. Here we have also specified active_bands=np.array(['g', 'i'). This sets the rest of the data to be inactive, i.e., not used in the fitting. All bands/frequencies are active by default.

We can use this transient object to create plots of the data.

kwargs = {}
fig, axes = plt.subplots(3, 2, sharex=True, sharey=True, figsize=(12, 8))
kilonova.plot_multiband(figure=fig, axes=axes,
                        filters=["g", "r", "i", "z", "y", "J"], **kwargs)

Here the first plot_data will plot the data with all bands on one plot. While the second will plot all filters in the list in separate panels. We have also passed kwargs here (in this case empty) but can be populated with other keyword arguments to pass to matplotlib. We have also passed in a fig and axes to set up the plot in the specific way we wanted. We note that if no figure/axes/filters are passed then redback will use the defaults. More plotting documentation is available here.

Other transient objects can be constructed in a similar manner to the kilonova object.

prompt = '910505'
GRB = '070809'
sne = "SN2011kl"
tde = "PS18kh"

afterglow = redback.SGRB.from_swift_grb(name=GRB, data_mode='flux')
tidal_disruption_event = redback.TDE.from_open_access_catalogue(tde, data_mode='magnitude')
prompt = redback.PromptTimeSeries.from_batse_grb_name(name=name)
supernova = redback.supernova.Supernova.from_open_access_catalogue(name=sne,
                            data_mode='flux_density', use_phase_model=True)

Which loads the SGRB, TDE, prompt, and Supernova transient objects with the data for the specific transient respectively. Note that in the supernova object, we set phase_model=True. This sets the time attribute of the class to the modified julian date time of the observations. This is specifically for situations when users want to also sample the start time of the transient.

Loading private/simulated data

The above showed the scenario where a user has used redback to download the data. In many cases, this is not possible as either a catalog is not implemented in redback, or the data is simulated, or the data is private.

In this scenario, a user can still create the redback.transient object and use it as they would otherwise.

We demonstrate this with data loaded from a pandas dataframe in the example here. An example to load the simulated data from redback simulation module is shown here.

In general, you can ignore the class methods and to create your own transient object by passing in the different attributes (time/flux/frequencies/bands) to the transient object of relevance.

For example,

import pandas as pd
import redback

data = pd.read_csv('data.csv')
time_days = data['time'].values
flux_density = data['flux_density'].values
frequency = data['frequency'].values
flux_density_err = data['flux_density_err'].values

name = '220501'
afterglow = redback.afterglow(name=name, time=time_days, flux=flux_density,
                                flux_density_err=flux_density_err, frequency=frequency)

We can again plot the data and multiband data


These transient objects provide the interface to fit and interpret many types of electromagnetic transients. In particular, broadband afterglows, kilonovae, prompt gamma-ray burst, supernovae, tidal disruption events, magnetar powered transients, millisecond magnetars or any other generic electromagnetic transient. A more general example which shows the different ways to create transient objects in redback is available here.