redback we have already implemented a lot of different models, which can be combined or modified to create another model easily.
These models range from phenomenological, to analytical, semi-analytical to numerical surrogates built with machine learning techniques.
Implementing a new model is probably the easiest way to contribute to redback!
Specifically, the models already included are
Afterglow models: Can output in flux density/magnitude/integrated flux/luminosity
Several structured jet models implemented in afterglowpy.
Tophat jet implemented in afterglowpy.
Surrogate built on top of jetfit.
Surrogate built on top of boxfit.
Kilonova models: Can output in flux density/magnitude/
One/two/three component kilonova models
One component BNS ejecta relation
Two component BNS ejecta relation
One component NSBH ejecta relation
Two component NSBH ejecta relation
Polytrope EOS ejecta relation
Three component model ejecta relation
Three component model temperature floor
Three component model temperature floor and diffusion
Surrogates of several different numerical simulations
All kilonova models in gwemlightcurves
Supernova models: Can output in flux density/magnitude/bolometric luminosity
CSM + Ni
Basic magnetar powered
General magnetar powered
magnetar + nickel
Shock cooling + Arnett
Shock models: Can output in flux density/magnitude/bolometric luminosity
CSM truncation shock
Magnetar driven ejecta models:
Metzger magnetar driven kilonova
General magnetar driven kilonova
Magnetic field mergernova
Magnetic field metzger driven kilonova
Millisecond magnetar models
vacuum dipole magnetar
gw + em magnetar
magnetar with variable braking index
magnetar with radiative losses
Tidal disruption models
Simple analytic fallback
Phenomenological and fireball models
1-6 component piecewise power law
We note that these models can output in flux_density or magnitude set by the keyword argument output_format or in integrated flux or luminosity using the appropriate luminosity/flux function.
Alongside these models we also include some general models which can many of the above models as a base_model
Phase + extinction models
Integrated flux afterglow models
Gaussian process base model: Will be soon implemented.
For a full up to date list of models implemented in
redback, look at the API
redback models as functions
All models in
redback are implemented as functions with minimal dependencies.
This means that users can simply use these functions by themselves as you would any other python function.
All users need to do is pass into the function a time array and any other parameter required by the function.
In this way, users can use
redback to just explore the impact of different parameters on the light curve and better understand the physics.
from redback.constants import day_to_s from redback.model_library import all_models_dict import numpy as np model = 'arnett_bolometric' function = all_models_dict[model] time = np.logspace(2, 8, 100)/day_to_s bolometric_luminosity = function(time, f_nickel=0.6, mej=30, vej=1000, kappa=2, kappa_gamma=1e2)
Here we use all_models_dict to provide a simple way to access the relevant function. A user could of course just import the function themselves.
Users can also use the prior objects to get a simulation of the light curves predicted by the function for randomly drawn samples from the prior.
from redback.constants import day_to_s from redback.model_library import all_models_dict from redback.priors import get_priors import numpy as np import pandas as pd model = 'arnett_bolometric' priors = get_priors(model=model, data_mode='luminosity') samples = pd.DataFrame(priors.sample(100)) function = all_models_dict[model] time = np.logspace(2, 8, 100)/day_to_s bolometric_luminosity = function(time, **samples.iloc)
Remember that the priors are simply a dictionary so users could also just pass a dictionary/dataframe they created themselves as well.
Users could also sample a lot of different draws from the prior at once (in the above we randomly drew a 100 samples) and then loop through them to simulate a population. Remember that we can also place arbitrary constraints on the priors to make a really specific population/simulation. For example, we could make a constraint that all priors in the population were brighter than 24th mag at peak or something else. Almost any time of constraint is possible, as long as it can be written mathematically.
A lot of the physics in different
redback models is set by default.
However, several different pieces of physics in various models can be changed by either passing your own function/class (see next section),
by switching the default argument with something else already implemented in redback, or changing a keyword argument.
The specific physics that can be changed:
Jet spreading on/off
Whether to infer lorentz factor in afterglow models
Whether to turn on/off pair cascades
Whether to turn on/off neutron precursor emission
Different ejecta relations: See relations already implemented here.
Different equations of states: See eos already implemented here.
Different interaction process: See processes already implemented here.
Different photosphere: See photospheres already implemented here.
Different SED: See SED’s already implemented here.
We encourage users to add more of these physics switches, which is another easy way to contribute to